Thirty Years' War

Thirty Years' War
   The Thirty Years' War was a religious political conflict that began in 1618 and ended in 1648 with the Treaty of Westphalia. its causes were essentially the antagonism between Protestants and Catholics and the unrest that developed in Europe owing to the ambitions of the house of Austria. The war broke out in Bohemia, following the Defenestration of Prague and is divided into four periods. The first was the Palatine period (1618-24), during the course of which Frederick, the elector of the Palatinate who was elected king of Bohemia, was defeated at White Mountain (1620) and subsequently deprived of his territories. The second period was the Danish (1624-29), during which King Christian IV of Denmark became the leader of the Lutherans. The third was the Swedish period (1630-35), during which King Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, the victor at Breitenfeld and at Lech, was killed at Liitzen. The fourth, or the French period (1635-48), so called because Cardinal riche-lieu, after having secretly supported the enemies of the house of Habsburg, intervened directly against Austria by declaring war on Spain. After initial setbacks, the French victories at Rocroi (1643) and at Fribourg and Nordlingen in 1645 (see henri de turenne), at the same time as the Swedish taking of Prague, forced Austria to negotiate and subsequently to sign the Peace of Westphalia. The Thirty Years' War left Germany devastated. The beneficiaries of the war were France, Sweden, the United Provinces, and Switzerland, as well as the electorate of Brandenburg, which then began its rise.

France. A reference guide from Renaissance to the Present . 1884.

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